Turbulence II Torrent
Results: The patient reported that the PT was completely resolved after stenting, and has had no recurrence of the symptoms after more than 2 years. CFD simulation revealed highly disturbed, turbulent-like flow at the sigmoid sinus close to auditory structures, producing a sonified audio signal that reproduced the subjective sonance of the patient's PT. No turbulence or sounds were evident at the stenosis, or anywhere in the post-stent model.
Turbulence II torrent
Conclusions: For the first time, turbulence generated distal to a venous stenosis is shown to be a cause of PT. High-fidelity CFD may be useful for identifying patients with such 'torrents' of flow, to help guide treatment decision-making.
I remember watching a short trailer for this movie on a special 1997 trailers compilation VHS from Empire magazine, it is certainly a memorable title, you know it's going to involve a plane going wrong, I was hoping for something reasonably entertaining. Basically Ryan Weaver (Ray Liotta), better known as The Lonely Hearts Strangler, is arrested in New York City, he is known to have raped and killed five women, but he persists he was framed and is innocent. On Christmas Eve, he and fellow criminal Stubbs (Brendan Gleeson), convicted of robbery, are being transported on a commercial flight to Los Angeles, escorted by four US marshals. TransContinental Airlines Flight 7 is almost empty, with only eleven other people onboard, the entire cabin is decorated with Christmas trees, lights and tinsel. The flight takes off with no problems, Weaver maintains a calm, well-mannered and charming attitude, but Stubbs breaks free when using the bathroom, stabbing a marshal with the sink tap handle, and grabs his gun to shoot at the other marshals. During a struggle, a stray bullet is fired, punching a hole in the fuselage, instantly causing an explosive decompression. During the chaos, Captain Matt Powell (J. Kenneth Campbell) is fatally shot, and First Officer Ted Kary (James MacDonald) is killed hitting his head on the wheel, disengaging the autopilot, and a stray bullet pierces a hole in the lavatory window. Weaver frees himself and tries to save the last remaining marshal, but fails when he is shot by Stubbs, after being shot himself, Weaver appears shocked by the ordeal, increasing the trust of the passengers. With the pilots being dead, flight attendant Teri Halloran (Dumb and Dumber's Lauren Holly) makes her way into the cockpit, she is now the only person left onboard capable of keeping the 747 in the air. To make matters worse, the plane is heading for a storm which threatens level 6 (severe) turbulence. Weaver's behaviour becomes increasingly erratic, he is paranoid of being sentenced to death upon landing and occasionally suffers nervous breakdowns. He locks the passengers in the crew's cabin and strangles flight attendant Maggie (Child's Play's Catherine Hicks) to death. He then calls LAX FBI control centre and threatens to crash the plane into their facility, he is now on a suicide mission, and is willing to anything to avoid being arrested. Teri realised Weaver's motives after speaking, via the 747's radio, to Detective Lieutenant Aldo Hines (Pretty Woman's Hector Elizondo), who arrested him. Weaver tries to manipulate Teri into believing that he has good intentions, but she knows that many crew members are dead, and the passengers missing, so she forces him into the lower deck and locks the hatch. As the only hope for the plane's survival, Teri is instructed by Captain Samuel Bowen (Ben Cross), via the radio in another commercial flight plane, how to fly and prepare to land. The plane barely survives the turbulence of the storm, and Teri is unsuccessful during the first attempt to land the plane on a runway at LAX airport. The plane skims an office building, a Japanese restaurant and a parking lot, during which it collides with several vehicles, and an SUV is picked up on the wheel, forcing the plane to go up again and alter course. Weaver meanwhile is below attempting to destroy the circuits that control the autopilot, but Teri manages to turn the plane around out of Los Angeles airspace, while a U.S. Navy F-14 Tomcat Fighter jet has been ordered to shoot the plane down. Teri begs LAX to give her one m ore chance, insisting that she can land the plane, at this point, Weaver is drunk from drinking champagne and has turned crazy. He breaks into the cockpit with an axe and tries to murder her, but the fighter jet shoots the SUV off the wheel, causing the plane to shake. Teri gets the chance to grab one of the marshals' guns, and picks up a bullet from the floor, Weaver holds him at gunpoint, he teases her that he won't kill him, but she squeezes the trigger, shooting Weaver in the head and killing him. Teri returns to the pilot's seat and safely lands the 747 in LAX, Weaver boasted that he killed everyone aboard, but the surviving crew and passengers are found alive. Also starring Total Recall's Rachel Ticotin as Rachel Taper, Jeffrey DeMunn as Brooks, John Finn as FBI Agent Frank Sinclair, Heidi Kling as Betty, Michael Harney as Marshall Marty Douglas, Licence to Kill's Grand L. Bush as Marshal Al Arquette, Alan Bergmann as Mr. Kramer, Danna Hansen as Mrs. Kramer and R.J. Knoll as Kip. Liotta is a good choice as the villain, first being a creepy charmer, then going full blown hog-wild, and Holly is alright as the innocent but plucky flight attendant, think of this movie as "Die Hard in the sky", because it is essentially the same format, a psycho on the loose in a plane and the person in the wrong place at the wrong who must save the save, some of the dialogue is cheesy, and it is somewhat overblown and ludicrous at times, but it is exciting, you can abandon logic and just go with it, a reasonably fun action thriller. Worth watching!
The turbulence of quantum fluids has been studied primarily in two quantum fluids: liquid Helium and atomic condensates. Experimental observations have been made in the two stable isotopes of Helium, the common 4He and the rare 3He. The latter isotope has two phases, named the A-phase and the B-phase. The A-phase is strongly anisotropic, and although it has very interesting hydrodynamic properties, turbulence experiments have been performed almost exclusively in the B-phase. Helium liquidizes at a temperature of approximately 4K. At this temperature, the fluid behaves like a classical fluid with extraordinarily small viscosity, referred to as helium I. After further cooling, Helium I undergoes Bose-Einstein condensation into a superfluid, referred to as helium II. The critical temperature T c \displaystyle T_c for Bose-Einstein condensation of helium is 2.17K (at the saturated vapour pressure), while only approximately a few mK for 3He-B.
Although in atomic condensates there is not as much experimental evidence for turbulence as in Helium, experiments have been performed with rubidium, sodium, caesium, lithium and other elements. The critical temperature for these systems is of the order of micro-Kelvin.
The property of quantized circulation arises as a consequence of the existence and uniqueness of a complex macroscopic wavefunction Ψ \displaystyle \Psi , which affects the vorticity (local rotation) in a very profound way, making it crucial for quantum turbulence.
Experiments and numerical solutions show that quantum turbulence is an apparently random tangle of vortex lines inside a quantum fluid. The study of quantum turbulence aims to explore two main questions:
To understand quantum turbulence it is useful to make connection with the turbulence of classical fluids. The turbulence of classical fluids is an everyday phenomenon, which can be readily observed in the flow of a stream or river as was first done by Leonardo da Vinci in his famous sketches. When turning on a water tap, one notices that at first the water flows out in a regular fashion (called laminar flow), but if the tap is turned up to higher flow rates, the flow becomes decorated with irregular bulges, unpredictably splitting into multiple strands as it spatters out in an ever-changing torrent, known as turbulent flow. Leonardo da Vinci first observed and noted in his private notebooks that turbulent flows of classical fluids include areas of circulating fluid called vortices (or eddies).
Vinen turbulence can be generated in a quantum fluid by the injection of vortex rings into the system, which has been observed both numerically and experimentally. It has been observed also in numerical simulations of turbulent Helium II driven by a small heat flux and in numerical simulations of trapped atomic Bose-Einstein condensates; it has been found even in numerical studies of superfluid models of the early universe. Unlike the Kolmogorov regime which appears to have a classical counterpart, Vinen turbulence has not been identified in classical turbulence..
Turbulence in atomic condensates has only been studied very recently meaning that there is less information available. Turbulent atomic condensates contain a much smaller number of vortices compared to turbulence in helium. Because of the small size of typical atomic condensates, there is not a large length scale separation between the system size and the inter-vortex size, and therefore k-space is restricted. Numerical simulations suggest that turbulence is more likely to appear in the Vinen regime. Experiments performed in Cambridge have also found the emergence of wave turbulence scaling appearing.
In 3He-B, quantum turbulence can be generated by the vibration of wires. For atomic condensates, quantum turbulence can be generated by shaking or oscillating the trap which confines the BEC  and by phase imprinting the quantum vortices.
In classical turbulence, one usually measures the velocity, either at a fixed position against t